Deborah K. Smith
Chief Scientist
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
dsmith@whoi.edu

What do you study?

I study mid-ocean ridges and the formation of new oceanic crust.  I also study how and why volcanoes form on the seafloor.

What do you want to learn about the Puna Ridge?

I want to learn if eruptions and transport of magma at the submarine Puna Ridge are different than on the subaerial East Rift Zone, and if so, why.

What do you like best about going to sea?

I love being at sea surrounded by water in all directions, contemplating how deep the water is, what the seafloor looks like below the ship, and realizing how little we know about it.

 

Laura S. L. Kong
Co-Principal Investigator
Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawaii at Manoa

What do you study?

I am a seismologist who has been studying the seismotectonic and seismic velocity structure of Kilauea volcano and Loihi Seamount. During the Puna Ridge cruise, I will be looking at the deep-tow magnetic data, and helping with the tectonic mapping of fissuring and faulting along the rift axis.

What do you want to learn about the Puna Ridge?

I am interested in understanding how submarine rifting occurs (when/how fast, how much, and where), and how it compares to the features we see subaerially along Kilauea's East Rift Zone.

What tools/data will you use?

As a seismologist, my data are earthquakes and man-made sound sources. The earthquakes tell me where brittle failure can occur (or cannot occur in the case of magma chambers), and what type of rock failure or faulting occurs. The man-made sources, or shots, give me information about the seismic velocity structure; heterogeneity in the structure tells us something about the subsurface. The tools that I use to collect these data are seismometers (ocean bottom seismometers in the sea), and the shots are made using an array of air guns which are fired behind a moving ship. During the Puna Ridge cruise, we will be collecting the near-bottom magnetic data using a 3-component magnetometer that is attached to the DSL-120 instrument sled.

What do you like best about going to sea?

It is very exciting to take a ship out into the open ocean to collect data which no one else has ever seen before. The promise of new discovery is very exciting. It is also very refreshing to get away from the routine of living in a city amongst many people; being on the open ocean with no land in sight is in many ways very relaxing.

Kevin T. M. Johnson
Co-Principal Investigator
Bishop Museum, Honolulu, HI

What do you study?

I study the geochemistry of volcanoes and mantle rocks in order to understand about processes of magma formation and movement and the geochemical structure of the Earth's mantle.

What do you want to learn about the Puna Ridge?

I want to learn how magma moves along the East Rift Zone of Kilauea and how it is emplaced so far away from the summit of Kilauea

What tools/data will you use?

For rock sampling we will use rock dredges and a rock corer. The dredge is dragged along the bottom of the sea and picks up rock samples; the corer is lowered on a cable and hits the seafloor where it picks up samples of volcanic glass in its tip.

What do you like best about going to sea?

I like the time spent concentrating on solving a specific set of scientific questions as a team. I also enjoy the practical problem solving we have to do in real time while at sea. Finally, I enjoy being away from the office and out in the fresh air and open sea.

Mark Bulmer
Scientist Participant
Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution

What do you study?

I study volcanic processes on the Earth and terrestrial planets. Of particular interest is the modification of volcanoes by slope failure.

What do you want to learn about the Puna Ridge?

I want to learn more about diking processes on seamounts and relate this to on-going analysis of particular volcanic domes on Venus.

What tools/data will you use?

The main tool will be the sonar imaging system.

What do you like best about going to sea?

Exploring much that is unknown.

Dennis Geist
Scientist Participant
University of Idaho

What do you study?

I specialize in basaltic volcanism and the petrology of oceanic lavas.

What do you want to learn about the Puna Ridge?

My main interests are in trying to figure out the ultimate source of the magma and the history of the magma as it ascended through the Pacific Plate and out the side of Kilauea.

What tools/data will you use?

I am mostly assisting Kevin Johnson. We will use microscopic study of the lavas' minerals and a variety of elemental and isotopic analytical techniques to study the lavas.

What do you like best about going to sea?

Working with the great people.

Terry Naumann
Scientist Participant
University of Nevada, Las Vegas (soon to be University of Alaska, Anchorage after 1-1-99)

What do you study?

The volcanology and petrology of hotspot-generated oceanic islands, especially ones near spreading ridges I have been working in the Galapagos Islands mostly.

What do you want to learn about the Puna Ridge?

I want to see how the lava compositions change as a function of position along the ridge and what the implications are for the magma supply system...mostly as a comparison to the Galapagos islands where rift systems are very different than those in Hawaii.

What tools/data will you use?

Mostly dredges and wax cores to get the rocks on board then grind them up when we return so we can analyze their chemical composition.

What do you like best about going to sea?

I don't have to climb to the top of a volcano with a 45 kilo pack to collect the samples! I also like learning about the other facets of oceanography from the other scientists on board.

Frank A. Trusdell
Scientist Participant
US Geological Survey---Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

What do you study?

Volcanic Hazards and Hazards Mitigation

What do you want to learn about the Puna Ridge?

The morphology, extent, size and distribution of volcanic vents and flows. How do they differ and how are they similar to the subaerial analog? What compositional types of lava flows will we find? How do these chemical signatures support or detract from the current models on rift- and magma- storage.

What tools/data will you use?

The high-resolution bathymetry data will help on morphologic studies. Dredge and core samplers will allow us to collect rocks for petrologic and chemical analysis. Hand lens for on site characterizations of rocks. Photographs to document specific geologic sites of great interest.

What do you like best about going to sea?

The smell of the salt air; reminiscing about the voyages, trials and tribulations my ancestors had to overcome when sailing across the Pacific.

Wenlu Zhu
Scientist Participant
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

What do you study?

My research interests include: Experimental rock mechanics, deformation and failure mode of crustal rocks and the application on earthquake mechanisms, transport properties of rocks, micromechanics of rock deformation and quantitative microscopy, theoretical and numerical modeling of deformation and percolation processes, evolution of permeability and pore structure in a hydrothermal system.

What do you want to learn about the Puna Ridge?

Among many other interesting questions, I am eager to learn the interplay between dike propagation and magma transportation in the Puna Ridge and their role in rift formation.

What tools/data will you use?

I am hoping to use theoretical/numerical modeling combined/constrained with/by the geophysical and geochemical data we will obtain from this cruise to understand some fundamental tectonic processes in the Puna Ridge.

What do you like best about going to sea?

Not sure yet, this is my first cruise.

Efthimios (Mike) Avgerinos
Graduate Student
University of Leeds (UK)

What do you study?

I am currently conducting research for my Ph.D. on the tectonics and volcanism in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) between the Kane and the Atlantis Fracture zones. The main tools are high resolution bathymetry and side scan imagery which facilitate both the qualitative and quantitative study of such active environments as the mid-oceanic ridges.

What do you want to learn about the Puna Ridge?

The Puna Ridge and the tectonic and volcanic processes taking place there serve as analogues to the MAR and the way new crust is constructed there. The study of the Puna Ridge, which is the submarine extension of the well-studied East Rift Zone (ERZ), will reveal its relationship to the sub-aerial ERZ and help the understanding of the processes in the MAR.

What tools/data will you use?

Again the primary data for the study will be bathymetric maps and side scan imagery. The processing of the data and initial interpretation will be carried out with commercial and public domain packages such as Matlab, Erdas-Imagine and GMT.

What do you like best about going to sea?

Every scientific cruise is a new experience. The feeling of studying the oceans while traveling in them is unique; you feel a part of the oceans. Either in hard seas or in calm weather, the relaxation of the sea helps you think clearly and in this way function better as a member of the scientific community on board. Living on a ship is different, since you socialize with the same people all the time in a confined space, which develops strong relationships and makes you feel a member of a big family.

Eric C. Bergmanis
Graduate Student
University of Hawaii at Manoa

What do you study?

Dynamics of volcanic systems on oceanic islands and mid-ocean ridges. I want to understand the volcanic and magmatic processes that affect variables like eruption frequency, volumes of lava erupted, and temporal/spatial variations in chemical composition of magmas.

What do you want to learn about the Puna Ridge?

I'm going on this cruise not to gather data for my own research, but as a technician/grunt helping other scientists with their data collection. The focus of my studies is changing from terrestrial to marine geology so my primary goal on this cruise is to learn the basics of doing geology from a ship (mapping, sampling, general life at sea stuff).

What tools/data will you use?

I want to gain experience collecting data with the DSL-120 seafloor mapping tool and rock sampling techniques like dredging and wax coring.

What do you like best about going to sea?

I don't know yet, it's my first time.

Timothy S. Dulaney
Graduate Student
University of North Carolina at Wilmington

What do you study?

Ridge processes at the Southwest Indian Ridge ultra slow spreading center. Specifically I am interested in faulting and segmentation as well the characterization and distribution of seamounts at the ridge.

What do you want to learn about the Puna Ridge?

I am interested in seamounts at the Puna ridge. I am also interested in becoming familiar with the software, equipment and methods used in the data acquisition.

What tools/data will you use?

Bathymetry and side-scan sonar.

What do you like best about going to sea?

The opportunity to travel, meet new people, learn new things. I also enjoy life onboard the ship. At sea the ship is a small world of it own. Onboard a unique society forms. This temporary departure from my everyday life allows me to view the world in a larger perspective.

Jennifer Mercer
Graduate Student
Dartmouth College

What do you study?

I am currently studying organic geochemistry for my Ph.D. thesis at Dartmouth College. I got involved in the Puna Ridge project while I was a summer student fellow at Woods Hole working for Dr. Debbie Smith and Dr. Tracy Gregg.

What do you want to learn about the Puna Ridge?

I want to learn about the origin of the large semi-circular flat-topped benches seen on the flanks of the Puna Ridge. These are features that we do not see on the subaerial portion of Kilauea's East Rift Zone. They are similar to perched lava ponds seen subaerially, but are much larger in size.

What tools/data will you use?

We will be using the WHOI Deep Submergence Lab's DSL-120 deep-towed vehicle to obtain side-scan sonar acoustic imagery and co-registered fine-scale bathymetry. We will also be collecting ARGO-II photographic imagery and samples from several sites.

What do you like best about going to sea?

This is my first time going to sea so I don't know what I like best, but I am very excited because I love the ocean!

Lori A. Dolby
Research Assistant
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

What are your responsibilities at sea?

I will be in charge of producing the images for the Puna Ridge web site. I will create views of the seafloor from the data being collected as well as develop images and video of daily cruise activities.

What do you like best about going to sea?

The shear beauty and the immense size of the ocean.

How often do you go on research cruises?

Once every 2-3 years.

David L. DuBois
Senior Research Assistant
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

What are your responsibilities at sea?

My responsibilities at sea will be to watch over all the data being collected and to document it's progress through the various processing procedures. I'll also be changing the CD when the music stops. HA! HA!

What do you like best about going to sea?

I really like the places we visit, the process of putting a team of scientists, technicians, and ship's crew together that work toward the goal of getting excellent data, AND seeing sunrises, sunsets, storms, rainbows, and the night sky; stuff like that!

How often do you go on research cruises?

In a good year, two or three times, for a total of about two months at sea.

Peter Lemmond
Research Associate
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

What are your responsibilities at sea?

For this cruise, sonar processing.

What do you like best about going to sea?

Working on interesting projects without the interruptions of regular office work.

How often do you go on research cruises?

Really varies. Usually two or three cruise per year, maybe one or two months. One year, I was at sea almost seven months. Once, I went almost three years without a cruise.

Steve Gegg
Information Systems Associate
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

What are your responsibilities at sea?

I'll be working with the science party to collect and process the DSL-120 and ARGO II data.

What is your favorite memory of being at sea or the best thing you've seen at sea?

In January of 1979, a return expedition was organized to the Galapagos Hot Vent Sites first discovered in 1977. This was a multi-institutional effort utilizing the ANGUS towed camera system and the manned submersible ALVIN. It was documented for a National Geographic Society Special, "Dive to the Edge of Creation." One of the many specialized instruments aboard ALVIN was a high resolution RCA CCD Color Video Camera. Although most of us had seen many stills of the biological communities at the vents from the 1977 expedition, the incredible imagery recorded by the RCA camera was breathtaking. There wasn't a sound in that hot, crowded lab aboard the R/V Gilliss that night as we saw detailed, close-up color video of the shimmering water, giant tube worms, crabs living in total darkness thousands of meters below us on the floor of the ocean. Many of these creatures had never been seen before and this discovery revamped the entire concept of photosynthesis as the basis for the Earth's food chain. It remains my most vivid memory of my sea-going experiences.

How often do you go on research cruises?

An average of 2-4 times/year. This will be my fourth cruise this year.

William Sellars
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

What are your responsibilities at sea?

Chief Pilot of JASON. I do all the mechanical maintenance on all our vehicles as well as train new pilots.

What is your favorite memory of being at sea or the best thing you've seen at sea?

Pulling into port. Also, seeing hydrothermal vents, the Titanic and other shipwrecks.

How often do you go on research cruises?

Too often. About 5-6 months per year.

Skip Gleason
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

What are your responsibilities at sea?

On this trip, I am serving as DSL expedition leader. I am responsible for the overall performance of the DSL vehicles and personnel. I am also responsible for the logistics of getting our equipment to and from the work site. Plus, I am in charge of all launches and recoveries, i.e. over-the-side operations.

What is your favorite memory of being at sea or the best thing you've seen at sea?

I could say the 15 ft. squid I saw, my discovery of the first vent on the Juan de Fuca Ridge, catching a new species of giant angler fish in the crater of Loihi, seeing the southern cross for the first time, or seeing a meteor hit the sea. However, my favorite memory is meeting my wife at sea. I remember her spending hours in the lab alone with me, teaching her how to drive a ship while I navigated and watched a budding relationship start to grow that has turned into 18 years together!

How often do you go on research cruises?

Anywhere from 3-7 months per year. This year, it will be six months on four separate trips.

Matt Naiman
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

What are your responsibilities at sea?

Afloat, my responsibilities are as an engineer to troubleshoot and repair the various systems on the ROV's JASON, ARGO, MEDEA, and the DSL-120. When standing watch as a navigator I work to track the ROV's and to dynamically position the surface vessel. Ashore, my duties include design and development of new instrumentation and equipment for use with the ROV's.

What is your favorite memory of being at sea or the best thing you've seen at sea?

Seeing the MOAI (carved stone heads) on Easter Island and cruising by Pitcairn Island (as in Mutiny on the Bounty). Also, having the islanders come aboard to market their produce and handiworks.

How often do you go on research cruises?

Every few months. This year, about six months out of twelve.

Tom Crook
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

What are your responsibilities at sea?

Navigation-Set and survey transponders for acoustic long baseline navigation.

What is your favorite memory of being at sea or the best thing you've seen at sea?

Discovery of the Titanic! I've also enjoyed working on foreign vessels.

How often do you go on research cruises?

Between 3 and 8 months per year.

Dr. Malia Chow Researcher
Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, Univ of Hawaii Hawaii E-school teacher with Soo Boo Tan, SA45 Seminar in Scientific Research: Year of the Ocean

What classes do you teach? 

I am teaming the SA 45 Seminar in Scientific Research: Year of the Ocean with a wonderful biology teacher, Soo Boo Tan from Kaimuki high school.'

What will be your responsibilities be at sea?

I will be primarily involved in recording ongoing activities on board that can be related back to our students.

What do you expect to gain from going to sea?

I think this opportunity would give me a first hand experience of 'field research' from a geophysicist point of view. I hope to be able to communicate this directly to our students in a way that they feel involved with the expedition. An emphasis in our course is to allow students to experience actual research projects together with real scientists. My role on this expedition is not to be 'the scientist' but to have the focus of the experience be to transfer the information directly to our students in a one-on-one interaction.

Ms. Soo Boo Tan
Kaimuki High School Biology teacher Hawaii E-school teacher with Malia Chow, SA45 Seminar in Scientific Research: Year of the Ocean

What do you expect to gain from this project?

I am excited to be a part of the Puna Ridge expedition. This is the first time in my years of teaching science (biology) that I have the chance to integrate real science research and investigation into my curriculum so intimately. It is not the same as the wet lab science that we do in the traditional classrooms which are strong on hands-on inquiry but lack the investigative part. In studies like this one, students see how scientific knowledge is obtained by scientists actually going out and doing field investigations. I think it is a very powerful way of bringing students closer to seeing science as a career. And that is what I want my students to get out of the Puna Ridge expedition through the e-school course I am teaching.

Larry Gaddis
Hawaii DOE Office of Information and Telecommunication Services
former teacher and school principal

What will be your responsibilities be at sea?

My primary responsibility will be to record my experiences in a journal to share with students and others who are following the research activities of the ship. I'll also be helping with other duties such as standing watches over areas that require constant monitoring.

What classes do you teach?

My present assignment as an educational administrator doesn't include >teaching classes.

What do you expect from going to sea?

This will be a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to participate in actual scientific research about a subject that has always fascinated me, the undersea environment. Most people never get a first hand view of the sort of equipment necessary to explore the deep ocean bottom. This is are an environment nearly as hostile to humans as outer space. I'm also looking forward to meeting and learning from the professionals and scientists that are adding to the building blocks of knowledge about our world.

 

Naidah Gamurot
High School teacher, and Hawaii E-school teacher
Waianae High School, Oahu

What will be your responsibilities be at sea?

I will be teaching my classes from sea. I'll be working with Waianae High School, Mauka Lani Elementary, and the State of Hawaii's E-School course, Earth Science Online. My contact to all three will be through the E-School website and email. All three groups will also be accessing the PROWL site.

More specifically: Mauka Lani Elementary: I will be helping them to map the progress of the ship daily. They're going to try to do this in minutes and seconds. The school was able to get a large topo from the Navy that will be located in their library. The 6th grade classes will be giving daily reports to the rest of the school. This group of students will be touring the ship while it is docked in Honolulu. The students will also be learning about lava rocks on the ocean floor.

Waianae High School and E-School: They will be closely following the mapping and geology-related topics. The cruise info is the forerunner their 5-day study tour of the Big Island in November. The students will tour the ship in Honolulu. For E-School, I will also be I will be gathering video and info to be included in an E-School virtual fieldtrip. For the Waianae High, I'll also be collecting info on the various careers of those on board for the school's School-To-Work program.

What do you expect to gain from going to sea?

All of the above, plus first-hand experience in field research. The experience I gain will be used in our Natural Resources Pathway at Waianae High

Bob Golden
Hawaii DOE Office of Information and Telecommunication Services
former teacher

What will be your responsibilities be at sea?

I believe my role and related responsibilities will be to assist with day-to-day functions while on board. Additionally, I am very interested in observing the operational aspects of this expedition and how the research experience and knowledge gained can be made accessible and interactive with a larger student base.

What do you like best about going to sea?

I have always been fascinated with the open ocean and being out at sea is a very humbling experience. I like the quiet and serenity, the beauty, the clean air. And, being on board a boat at sunrise or sunset is very close to a "religious" experience.

What do you expect to gain from going to sea?

First and foremost, I hope to gain first hand information regarding the potential for expanded and creative student learning environments. Students are no longer bound by the solitary four walls of a classroom. E-School technology and opportunities certainly has the capacity to reach out and involve students with novel learning activities and teaching strategies. And, after reading Wenlu Zhu's response to "what she studies", I hope to gain a clearer understanding of just what she does.

Jim Varnum
Self-employed

What will be your responsibilities be at sea?

I am a pilot and engineer for the DSL-120, JASON, and ARGO vehicles.

What is your favorite memory of being at sea or the best thing you've seen at sea?

Seeing Pitcairn Island.

How often do you go on research cruises?

3 times per year.

 

Iris Clyne
Hawaii DOE E-school teacher/Technology and Curriculum Consultant

What will be your responsibilities be at sea?

Linking between the scientists and students, creating a teacher journal of the experience at sea. Participating and helping with the project web page.

What classes do you teach?

E-school's Youth Entrepreneurship; training teachers on how to integrate technology into their classrooms using experiential, real world activities. Also designing a new course on the Science of Voyaging.

What do you expect to gain from going to Sea?

I'd like to get involved with the scientific data collection and manipulation of data into mapping the ridge. Through this experience, I also hope to get a better understanding of how research at sea works and be able to share my new found knowledge with other teachers and incorporate it into science curriculum so that students have real life experiences to learn from.