Dormant shield volcano on the island of Maui that last erupted in 1790; estimated age 2
million years old. Elongate summit crater 860 m (2580 ft) deep, 12 km (7.2 miles) by 3.5
km (2.1 miles) wide, breached by erosion on northwest and southeast by large valleys,
forming between 50,000 and 300,000 years ago. Literally, "house [used] by the sun
(the demigod Maui was believed to have lassoed the sun here in order to lengthen the day,
and permit his mother, Hina, to dry her tapa). 3055 m (10,023 ft).
Crater also known as the fire pit, within Kilauea Crater, 165 m (495 ft) deep and 6 km
(3.6 miles) wide, which formed through series of collapses between 210 and 500 years ago;
literally, "fern house," referring to a house of ferns built by Kamapua'a, a
rebuffed suitor of Pele, to keep her from escaping and causing eruptions.
Hilina Pali comprises the network of faults which downdrop the flank of Kilauea seaward.
The Hilina Fault, with a 350 m (1050 ft) throw and dip of 50-60°, shoals at depth within
the volcanic pile of Kilauea. Offshore, the submarine Hilina Slump accommodates movement
of Kilauea's south flank as it moves seaward at rates of about 10 cm/year (4 inches/year)
under magmatic pressure and gravitational forces. Literally, "struck (as by
The Chain of Craters Road in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park goes down the 300-400 m high
Hölei Pali, which marks the eastern end of the Hilina fault system, as it descends from
the summit down to sea level. Named after a native Hawaiian tree.
Volcano on the Big Island of Hawaii that last erupted in 1800-1801, sending fast-moving
voluminous lava flows that covered large parts of the western coast of the Big Island.
Height of 2523 m (8271 ft) with a well-developed northwest rift zone and less-developed
south-southeast and north rift zone. It has an age estimated at over 300,000 years.
Kilauea volcano lower East Rift Zone eruption of 1960 which resulted in the destruction
of the village of Kapoho; 10 km2 of land was covered by the eruption, which occurred 50 km
(30 miles) downrift from the summit. Literally, "the depression."
This was the site of the death of Captain James Cook, the western explorer credited with
discovering the Hawaiian Islands, but who met an untimely and violent death when native
Hawaiians found out that he and his seamen were mortal and not gods. The bay is also a
marine preserve and one the best best places for snorkeling in Hawaii. Literally,
"pathway [of] the god."
Active volcano on the flank of Mauna Loa with two main rift zones: the East Rift Zone
and the Southwest Rift Zone. Kilauea was continuously active from the late 1700's
until 1924 as summit eruptions within Halemau'uma'u Crater, and again in 1952, 1960
(downrift covering town of Kapoho), and 1972-74 (Mauna Ulu East Rift Zone eruption), prior
to start of 1983 Pu'u O'o eruption. For the past 200 years, Kilauea and Mauna Loa have
erupted on average every two to three years, making them the world's most frequently
active volcanoes; since 1950, Kilauea eruptive activity had dominated. Since 1956, average
volume of lava erupted is about 91 million cubic meters/year (120 million cubic
yards/year). Summit elevation is 1,277 m (4190 ft). Literally, "great spewing,
wide-spreading" (i.e. volcanic eruptions). Estimated age of 600,000 years, though 90%
of its surface is less than 1,100 years old.
The 12 km (7.2 mile) long, 2 km (1.2 mile) wide, fault system between Kilauea Caldera
and Hilina Pali, forms the westward extension of the East Rift Zone from Mauna Ulu to
Mauna Iki on the Southwest Rift Zone. Perhaps named for a supernatural being with a tropic
bird who once lived in the area.
Extinct and oldest volcano on the Big Island, having last erupted 120,000 years ago.
Height of 1,670 m (5,480 ft) and estimated age of 500,000 years. Giant Pololu landslide
250,000-300,000 years ago catastrophically removed much of northeast flank: 20 km (12
miles) of shoreline, 1 km (0.6 miles) of elevation), and distributed the debris 130 km (78
miles) onto the sea floor.
Youngest expresssion of the Hawaiian hot spot; located 35 km (21 miles) off the southern
coast of the Big Island, rising 3080 m (9240 ft) high to within 1100 m (3300 ft) of the
sea surface. Summit about 6 km (3.6 miles) across, containing a caldera and several pit
craters. Hydrothermal activity and fresh basaltic glass have been recovered on Loihi
indicating recent submarine volcanic activity. Earthquake swarms occurring annually since
1971 suggest major submarine eruptions or magmatic intrusions analogous to processes
occurring along subaerial Hawaiian rift zones. The 1996 swarm activity consisted of over
4000 located events, and resulted in the creation of a 100 m (300 ft) wide pit crater.
Extinct volcano on the northwest (leeward) coast of the Big Island that emerged 800,000
years ago, growing to 235 m (770 ft), before subsiding at 2.4 mm/yr (0.1 inches/year) to
its present depth of 1,335 m (4380 ft) after volcanism ceased; literally, "leeward
Second largest (80 km (48 miles) long, 43 km (26 miles) wide) island in state and home
of dormant Haleakala volcano. Estimated age of 1 million years. 1995 estimated population
of 105,000. Named for the demigod Maui
Highest mountain in Hawaii'i at 4205 m (13,796 ft) above sea level, literally,
"white mountain" as its summit is often snow-capped during the winter months.
Mauna Ke'a is a dormant volcano having last erupted about 4,500 years ago; estimated age
of 1 million years. There are no pronounced rift zones.
Second highest mountain in Hawai'i, and largest single mountain mass on Earth, rising
4169 m (13,677 ft) above sea level and about 8840 m (29,000 ft) above the ocean floor.
Mauna Loa last erupted in 1984 along its northeast rift zone, and lava reached to within
6.5 km (4 miles) of Hilo. Summit crater is known as Moku'aweoweo, and has two rift zones:
Northeast and Southwest. Literally, "long mountain." Estimated age of 1 million
Elongate, 3 km (1.8 miles) by 5 km (3 miles), 183 m deep, summit caldera of Mauna Loa
estimated to have formed by collapse 600-750 years ago; literally, moku is an islet, and
'aweoweo fish section (the red of the fish suggests volcanic fires).
One of the eight major islands that make up the State of Hawaii. Moloka'i is 68 km (38
miles) long, 17 km (10 miles) wide, with a 1995 estimated population of 6700 people. Much
of the northern half of the island slid catastrophically into the ocean during a landslide
event (Wailau slide); up to 13,000 square kilometers of debris cover 200 km (120 miles) of
adjacent sea floor based on side scan sonar mapping in the 1980's.
Literally, "cliff". The Nuuanu Pali on the windward island of Oahu, was formed
during a catastrophic landslide event (Nuuanu slide); 23,000 square kilometers (4680
square miles) of debris cover 235 km (141 miles) of adjacent sea floor based on side scan
sonar mapping in the 1980's.
Name of the current active eruption of Kilauea Volcano, and named after a volcanic cone
that was built during its initial phases. Longest lasting single eruption in Hawaiian
recorded history; current eruption began in January, 1983 in Napau Crater, moved downrift
within hours, eventually building a cone 250 m high. The Kupainaha lava pond was active
from 1986 to 1993, and the current eruption consists primarily of lava channels and tubes
which emanate from Pu'u O'o and travel downhill over 10 km (6 miles) where they erupt into
the ocean. During the eruption several subdivisions, and the National Park's Wahaula
Visitor center were destroyed. Literally, "hill of the oo" (a species of native
bird, a black honey eater, that is now extinct).